تدریس خصوصی آیلتس

Writing for IELTS, session6

Connecting to independent clause using connective prepositions:

Independent clauses, and/but/ yet/ or/ so/ nor Independent clause.
Example:
They will be happy, when/ while/ as soon as/ as/ since/ … they see you.
Inversion:
Inversion is made to make sentences more formal, more emphatic and more dramatic.
Example:
She is a good nurse.
Is she a good nurse,
She is never on time.
Never is she on time.
Other frequency adverbs: no/not/none/neither/not only/nor/seldom/rarely/hardly/scarcely Can
be inverted.

  • Conditional sentences type 1:
    “If” can be replaced by should:
    Example:
    If you should see him, give him my regards.
    Should you see him, give him my regards.
  • Conditional sentences type 2:
    “If” can be replaced by “Were”
    Example:
    If I were you, I would study more.
    Were I you, I would study more.

Reduction:
Using reduction we change Clauses to phrases.
Reduction in adjectival clauses:
In adjectival clauses in order to reduce the clause we should omit connector with the role of
subject and the auxiliary finite verb and if there is no auxiliary finite verb the main finite verb
should change to ING form.
Example:
The building [that is destroyed] is on Fifth Avenue.
The building [destroyed] is on Fifth Avenue.
The building [that they are destroying] is on Fifth Avenue.

This sentence cannot be reduced because subjects in these two clauses are different.
The building [which fell down and broke last night] woke us at home.
The building [falling down and breaking last night] woke us at home.
The man [who is standing there] is my uncle.
The man [standing there] is my uncle.
The cat [which made so much noise last night] must be strayed.
The cat [making so much noise last night] must be strayed.
The letter [which you sent me] arrived today.

This sentence cannot be reduced because subjects in these two clauses are different.
The African children [who had been vaccinated] were immune.
The African children [having been vaccinated] were immune.

Notice:
Only the first part of the verb is changed.
Jack, [who usually wins the games], is absent today.
Jack, [usually wining the games], is absent today.
Jack, [who usually does win the games], is absent today.
Jack, [usually doing win the games], is absent today.

Notice:
Even verbs such as feel, hate, love, like, get ING in reduction process.
The bird species [which were so exotic through out this region] were forbidden to hunt.
The bird species [so exotic through out this region] were forbidden to hunt.
The White House, [which is located in Washington], is the president’s house.
The White House, [located in Washington], is the president’s house.
It can be also inverted:
Located in Washington, The White House is the president’s house.

Notice:
Non restrictive adjectival phrases are called Appositive and comas should be used
around them.
Reduction in adverbial clauses:
We can only reduce adverbial clauses if the subject is the same in the two clauses of the
sentence.
We cannot omit the connector if it has an important meaning in the sentence.
Example:
[While I was walking in the park], I saw my old friend.
[Walking in the park], I saw my old friend.
[After Bill moved to Mexico], he began to speak Spanish fluently.
[After moving to Mexico], Bill began to speak Spanish fluently.

Notice:
Here it is impossible to omit “after” because of its important meaning.
[After the candidates had finished their campaign], they moved to California.
[After having finished their campaign], the candidates moved to California.
[Although he feels sick], he attends at the meeting.
[Although feeling sick], he attends at the meeting.
[If you are not satisfied], you can return the product.
[If not satisfied], you can return the product.
[When you are reading], you can start your speech.
[When reading], you can start your speech.

Notice:
Contrast adverbs are never omitted.
Notice:
“After” is only omitted if we have “having + P.P.” at the beginning of the sentence.
Notice:
In IELTS Examination we should have at least one inversion and one reduction in a
paragraph.