Writing for IELTS session1


a meaningful combination of letters.


a meaningful combination of words.


a meaningful combination of words + subject + verb.


  1. Independent (meaningful by itself)
  2. Dependent (needs another independent clause to be complete.)

Dependent clauses:

  1. noun clauses
  2. adjective clauses
  3. adverbial clauses


    1. finite verbs

– 16 tenses

    1. non-finite verbs

– infinitives
– gerunds
– past participles


used for further definition.
Adjective cannot be used for proper nouns but adjective clauses can be used for
proper nouns.

Adjective clauses:

Describe and limit nouns.
Adjectives come before nouns.

Adjective clauses come after the noun.

Adjective clauses:

  1. restrictive adjective clause
  2. non-restrictive (defining) adjective clauses

Only non-restrictive adjective clauses can be used for proper nouns and it is
necessary to use two comas around them.


  1. I saw a man who was old in the garden.
    (Here “who was old” is a restrictive adjective clause.)
  2. I saw John, who was old, in the garden.
    (Here “who was old” is a non-restrictive adjective clause.-

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